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Modify any of the values if different than computed. Note that width is measured along the x-axis and depth is measured along the y-axis. Note that the starting and ending values may be the same in which case the increment must be zero.

The Input Reinforcement All Sides Equal command allows you to enter the total number of bars in the column section. The program attempts to place equal number of bars on each side of a rectangular layout then equally space them on each side. For a circular layout, the program attempts to equally space the bar. The Input Reinforcement Equal Spacing command allows you to enter the total number of bars in the column section.

The program attempts to place the bars equally spaced on all four sides of a rectangular layout. This command is only applicable for rectangular sections. Must be at least 4 and a multiple of 4. Note that corner bars are associated with the top and bottom sides. Corner bars are associ- ated with the top and bottom sides. The minimum and maximum number of bars can be set to zero 0 or must be multiple of 2.

The Input Reinforcement Irregular Pattern command allows you to specify any number of bars up to 10, to be placed anywhere within the column section. Each bar may have any cross-sectional area. This command is available with the Investigation option only. If the section is irregular, The spSection window, where the section reinforcement may be graphically input, is displayed.

Otherwise, a dialog box appears. The data are added to the list box. The capacity reduction factors change depending on the selection. The code requirements are used as defaults. This command is available with the Design option only. Notice that the minimum and maximum reinforcement ratios change depending on the selection.

Enter the minimum and maximum reinforcement ratios in the corresponding text boxes. Note: this command is available for slender columns only. The x-axis or y-axis data groups may be disabled depending on the active run axis. If zero is entered for both Width and Depth, the dimensions of the design column will be automatically used. Beams defined using this command span perpendicular to the x- axis.

The data group below updates depending on the selection. Beams defined using this command span perpendicular to the y-axis. When designing or investigating a non-slender column, factored loads consisting of applied axial loads and moments about the active axis may be input.

This command is not available for slender columns. When designing or investigating a non-slender or slender column, service level loads consisting of dead, live, lateral wind and earthquake , and snow axial loads and moments at both column ends about the active axis may be input.

These loads are then factored and combined based on the load combinations. A non-slender column may be investigated without inputting any loads.

The capacity of the section is computed along with other section capacity parameters. This command is not available for slender columns or under the Design option. In the output file, key points e. For each point, the axial load and bending moment capacities, along with the corresponding neutral axis depth, distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of extreme layer of longitudinal tension steel, net tensile strain in extreme layer of longitudinal tension steel at nominal strength, and strength reduction factor ACI only are listed.

For a biaxial run, these points are listed for bending about positive and negative X and Y axes. For ACI code, the program flags the unusual increase in axial load capacity in transition zone between the balanced point and the tension control point. For uniaxial runs, the bar splice requirements for columns75 are indicated on the interaction diagram.

When investigating a non-slender column uniaxial runs only , grouped factored applied axial loads may be input. The corresponding moment capacity for each load is computed and output.

ACI , Fig. The service load input under the load cases dead, live, wind, earthquake, and snow are combined based on these combinations. A minimum of one combination must be input. For a new file, the default combinations per the selected code are shown in the list box. Up to fifty combinations may be defined.

This command is available for Irregular sections and for sections with Sides Different or Irregular reinforcement. The last option is available for irregular sections only. With this option ON, an output file will be created while the program is solving. The output file is a text file that contains an echo of the input along with slenderness calculation output, load combinations, and the critical points on the interaction diagram. With this option ON, calculations of nominal unfactored capacity interaction diagram will also be included in the calculations so that the nominal diagram can be viewed and exported in addition to the design factored capacity diagram.

With this option ON, if designing a column section, the program will pause at each cross section and reinforcement layout it tries, and display the cross section with its bars in the Information bar.

If more data are needed to solve the problem, an error box appears and you will be prompted for the required data. If all the needed data are input, the solver portion of spColumn will start executing. The Solving box appears with a progress indicator. Click Cancel to terminate the solution process. After a successful run, the interaction diagram or the contour plot is displayed in the Graphics area of the window.

Input data file, output data file, and run options can be passed to the program via parameters. Multiple cross-sections can be designed and analyzed by executing spColumn with multiple input files using batch BAT files see Examples.

Combined with Column Text Input files CTI , this feature can be used for automation spColumn runs for projects involving large numbers of cross-sections. Alternatively you can also access spResults by pressing the F6 key. You can change some default settings that spColumn uses when it is started or when the File New command is executed.

To do so, choose the SAVE button after inputting the bars. The bar set is saved to the file specified by the user. To retrieve a saved set, choose the READ button.

After executing a run and selecting the File Save command, the program saves the diagram data in a separate file that has the same file name as the input file, with an IAD extension. The IAD interaction diagram file may be later read by the program and two diagrams of different files may be superimposed for the purpose of comparison. The open dialog box appears. To open a file that exists in another drive or directory, select a different drive or directory drive from the LOOK IN drop-down list.

If the data is successfully read, the diagram from the IAD file shown dotted is superimposed over the currently displayed diagram. By default, the program displays diagrams based on the design factored section capacity. Display of diagrams based on the nominal unfactored strength is controlled by the View Show Nominal Diagram option which is available when calculations of nominal diagram are activated using the Solve Include Nominal Diagram option.

For a uniaxial run, the program computes and displays the P-M interaction diagram. For a biaxial run, the program computes the three-dimensional failure surface P, Mx, My.

The failure surface can be viewed in one of two ways:. Whenever the mouse cursor moves over the Graph area, the axial load, moment, and eccentricity are displayed in the Status bar. To display unique angle values only, leave the option unchecked. To display unique axial load values only, leave the option unchecked. A dialog window appears launching the spColumn 3D viewer. In General Settings, user controls are provided for general, failure surface, planes, and camera options.

In Colors Settings, user controls are provided for factored surface, nominal surface, load points, main axes angles, axis, and cutter plane options. Shows or hides the view controls. Arrows in the upper right corner provide controls for the location or the tool and extent of functions. The icons show in blue when active. View controls provide the following operator functions:. Shows or hides the status bar. Status bar is located at the bottom of the screen and displays the design code, the load values at the cursor location, and the units.

Modifies settings for general, and colors. Refer to View Menu for more information on settings. Any input data is cleared and the default values are restored. Based on Example 6. Kamara and Lawrence C. Material Properties 2. Concrete Type Standard f’c 4 ksi Ec ksi fc 3. Section 3. Reinforcement 4. Capacity Reduction Factors Axial compression, a 0. The concrete used is 4. The factored load values for the column under consideration are as follows: P kip kips Top Muy kip-ft k-ft Bottom Muy kip-ft ft-kips.

From the File menu, choose New. Based on Example Salmon, and Jose A. Other properties are computed and will be accepted. Input 1. Input 1 for k. Choose OK. Design a square column78 with a clear height of 16 ft.

The column is sway and subjected to dead, live and wind loads as shown below. There are 14 interior columns, 18 exterior columns and 4 corner columns. Investigate the axial load and moment capacity of a shear wall79 for a given location of the neutral axis. Use 4-ksi concrete and ksi reinforcing steel. C10 C11 C12 T1 T2. For this example, however, a specific tool provided with spColumn will be used for frequently needed shapes.

If a macro warning is displayed when opening Design Assistant, make sure macros are enabled in order for the exporting function to work properly.

Design Assistant is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet that can be used to facilitate creation of spColumn text import files for a variety of sections including dumbbell shaped and C-shaped shear walls. Save the file as Example4-Geo. Save the file as Example4-Reinf.

Import Data from text file dialog box appears. Make sure that Geometry radio button is checked, choose OK. Select Example4-Geo. The shear wall geometry appears on the spColumn screen.

Import Data from text file box appears. Press Reinforcement radio button, then Choose OK. Select Example4-Reinf. The shear wall reinforcement appears on the spColumn screen as well. Input Project Information and leave all other options in their default settings of ACI design code. Leave all other options in their default settings. The initial axial load was selected through trial and error procedure in order to match neutral axis depth of 24 in.

Then, choose OK. Consider column as architectural i. Compute horizontal moment capacity Mx of the unsymmetrical beam cross section81 shown below. Use 3-ksi concrete and ksi reinforcing steel.

Based on Example 4. Wight and James K. When spSection module is loaded its window occupies the desktop. The default shape type is Solid. A node is inserted. Under Commands Menu, enter You are returned to spColumn and the section is shown in the Information bar. Click NO for this option. Determine the adequacy of a mm x mm column82 with M bars. Note that since the least column dimension is less than mm, the maximum section axial design capacity is capped in CSA A It enables the user to investigate irregularly shaped reinforced concrete sections subject to a combination of loadings.

The section may contain one opening. Once spColumn is started, you can activate spSection by selecting the Section Irregular command from the Input menu. This starts spSection, locks the spColumn window and maximizes the spSection window.

The section geometry may then be defined by drawing it on the screen or by inputting the coordinates of the polygon nodes. Once the section definition is complete, return to spColumn by selecting Save and Exit from the Main menu or the Toolbar. The following is a list of the spSection window components. In General Settings, user controls are provided for display, at exit choices, and precision options.

The arrow at the bottom of the icon opens Drawing Area dialog box which enables the user to edit the limits of drawing area and grid steps in X, and Y directions. Snap options are: Grid, shapes, cover, rein- forcements, intersections, and coordinate system ori- gin. Status bar is located at the bottom of the screen and displays the bars set, active command and its instruction, the coordinates of the cursor, and the units. Creates rectangular shapes of solid or opening by clicking the start and end points.

Alternately, the shape can be created by typing precise start point coordinates and dimensions at the left panel when Draw Rectangle icon is active. Creates polygon shapes by specifying its vertices in the drawing area until the closed polygon shape is obtained or by typing precise point coordinates and then pressing close button at the left panel when Draw Polygon icon is active. Creates a single reinforcement bar at a point. When the reinforcement single icon is active, sin- gle bar can be created by clicking at any point on the screen.

Alternatively, single reinforce- ment bar can also be created by entering precise coordinates at the left panel. Creates a linear bar pattern based on the specified bar number or bar spacing. When the rein- forcement linear icon is active, linear bar pattern can be created by specifying start and next points on the screen.

Alternatively, linear bar pattern can also be created by entering precise coordinates of the start point and next points at the left panel.

Creates a rectangular bar pattern based on the specified number of bars in the X and Y direc- tions respectively. When the reinforcement rectangular icon is active, rectangular bar pattern can be created by specifying start and end points of the diagonal on the screen. Alternatively, rectangular bar pattern can also be created by entering precise coordinates of the start point and the translation vector of the diagonal for the rectangle, at the left panel.

Creates a circular bar pattern based on the specified bar number or bar spacing. When the rein- forcement circular icon is active, circular bar pattern can be created by specifying the center point of the circle and the end point of its radius on the screen. Alternatively, circular bar pat- tern can also be created by entering precise coordinates of the center point, the radius and its angle with x-axis, at the left panel. Shows and hides the bar cover guide.

The cover type i. Modifies settings for view, display, combine, precision, and colors. It enables the user to view, customize, print and export reports in different formats. Once a successful run has been performed, you can open spReporter by selecting the Reporter command from the View menu. Alternatively, spReporter can also be accessed by pressing the F7 key or by clicking on the spReporter button in the program toolbar.

Once the work in spReporter is complete click the close button in the top right corner to exit the spReporter window. Zoom box Zooms on the report preview to the extent typed in the box or selected from the dropdown list. Fit to window width and enable scrolling Fits the width of report to the preview space width and enables scrolling. Pan When toggled on and if the report is bigger than preview window, enables panning the report.

Split long tables: Displays table headings in all pages when tables are split along sev- eral pages. Hide inactive items:: Hides unused tables from the explorer view. Printer Provides the option to select available printers and change printer properties. Settings Provides the options to modify print settings. The explorer panel consists of all the available report items classified into sections and arranged hierarchically.

Each item listed in the explorer panel is preceded by a checkbox. It enables the user to view program input and output in tables and export them in different formats.

Once a model has been successfully executed, you can open spResults by selecting the Results command from the View menu. Alternatively, spResults can also be accessed by pressing the F6 key or by clicking on the spResults button in the program toolbar. Once the work in spResults is complete click the close button in the top right corner to exit spResults window. Table number box Displays the table with the table number entered in the box. Auto fit column width to view area When toggled on always fits the width of table to the preview space width.

Maintain maximum column width Switches all table columns to their default maximum width. Highlighting color: Provides color options for highlighting critical items. The explorer panel consists of all the available items of the result classified into sections and arranged hierarchically. Any item in the explorer panel can be clicked on to display the corresponding table in the preview space.

Geometry, reinforcement or load data may be imported from a text file. Data fields on each line should be separated by spaces or TABs. Comments or blank lines should not be placed within the import file. Each service load point has five lines of data one line for each load case, i. Dead, Live, Wind, Earthquake, and Snow. Each data line has five values. For a factored load point i, Pi is the factored axial load, Mix is the factored moment about x and Miy is the factored moment about y.

Xon Yon. CTI files are plain text files that can be edited by any text editing software. Caution must be used when editing a CTI file because some values may be interrelated.

If one of these values is changed, then other interrelated values should be changed accordingly. While this is done automatically when a model is edited in the spColumn user graphic user interface GUI , one must update all the related values in a CTI file manually in order to obtain correct results.

For example, if units are changed from English to Metric in GUI, all the related input values are updated automatically. If this is done by editing a CTI file, however, not only the unit flag but also all the related input values must be updated manually.

Then, any necessary modifications to the CTI file can be applied with any text editor. However, it is recommended that users always verify modified CTI files by loading them in the spColumn GUI to ensure that the modifications are correct before running manually revised CTI files in batch mode. The CTI file is organized by sections.

Each section contains a title in square brackets, followed by values required by the section. The CTI file contains the following sections.

Each section of a CTI file and allowable values of each parameter are described in details below. Corresponding GUI commands are presented in parenthesis. The number sign, , at the beginning of a line of text indicates that the line of text is a comment. The sign must be located at the beginning of a line. Comments may be added anywhere necessary in a CTI file to make the file more readable. If a comment appears in multiple lines, each line must be started with a sign.

There are 26 values separated by commas in one line in this section. These values are described below in the order they appear from left to right. Do not edit. Number of factored loads menu Input Loads Factored… Number of service loads menu Input Loads Service… Number of points on exterior column section Number of points on interior section opening Cover type for investigation mode: menu Input Reinforcement 0-To transverse bar; 1-To longitudinal bar Cover type for design mode: menu Input Reinforcement 0-To transverse bar; 1-To longitudinal bar Number of load combinations; menu Input Load Load Combinations….

There are 13 values separated by commas in one line in this section. Area of reinforcing bar that is to be added through irregular section editor 6. Maximum X value of drawing area of irregular section editor 7.

Maximum Y value of drawing area of irregular section editor 8. Minimum X value of drawing area of irregular section editor 9. Minimum Y value of drawing area of irregular section editor Grid step in X of irregular section editor Grid step in Y of irregular section editor Grid snap step in X of irregular section editor Grid snap step in Y of irregular section editor. There are 3 values separated by commas in one line in this section. Menu Input Reinforcement Confinement….

Index 0 based of tie bars for longitudinal bars smaller that the one specified in the 3rd item in this section in the drop-down list 2. Index 0 based of tie bars for longitudinal bars bigger that the one specified in the 3rd item in this section in the drop-down list 3. Index 0 based of longitudinal bar in the drop-down list. This section applies to investigation mode only. There are 12 values separated by commas in one line in this section.

Number of bottom bars 3. Number of left bars 4. Number of right bars 5. Index 0 based of top bars Top Bar Size drop-download list 6. Index 0 based of bottom bars Bottom Bar Size drop-download list 7. Index 0 based of left bars Left Bar Size drop-download list 8. Index 0 based of right bars Right Bar Size drop-download list 9. Clear cover to top bars Clear cover to bottom bars Clear cover to left bars Clear cover to right bars.

Number of bars No. Index 0 based of bar Bar Size drop-down list 6. Clear cover to bar Clear Cover text box This section applies to design mode only. Minimum number of top and bottom bars 2.

Maximum number of top and bottom bars 3. Minimum number of left and right bars 4. Maximum number of left and right bars 5. Index 0 based of minimum size for top and bottom bars 6. Index 0 based of maximum size for top and bottom bars 7. Index 0 based of minimum size for left and right bars 8. Index 0 based of maximum size for left and right bars 9. Clear cover to top and bottom bars Clear cover to left and right bars Minimum number of bars 2. Maximum number of bars 3. Index 0 based of minimum size of bars 6.

Index 0 based of maximum size of bars 7. Clear cover There are 2 values separated by commas in one line in this section. There are 6 values separated by commas in one line in this section.

Section width along X Start 2. Section depth along Y Start 3. Section width along X End 4. Section depth along Y End 5. Section width along X Increment 6.

Diameter start 2. Do not change. Diameter end 4. Diameter increment 6. There are 11 values separated by commas in one line in this section. Menu Input Material Properties…. Concrete modulus of elasticity, Ec 3. Concrete maximum stress, fc 4. Beta 1 for concrete stress block 5. Concrete ultimate strain 6. Steel yield strength, fy 7. Steel modulus of elasticity, Es 8. Precast material for concrete. Only applicable for CSA A Standard material for concrete 0-Non-standard; 1-Standard Standard material for reinforcing steel 0-Non-standard; 1-Standard Compression-controlled strain limit.

There are 5 values separated by commas in one line in this section. Phi a for axial compression 2. Phi b for tension-controlled failure 3. Phi c for compression-controlled failure 4. Do not edit 5. Minimum dimension of tied irregular sections for CSA-A There are 4 values separated by commas in one line in this section.

Menu Input Reinforcement Design Criteria…. This section applies to irregular section in investigation mode only. The first line contains the number of points on exterior section perimeter. Each of the following lines contains 2 values: X and Y coordinates separated by comma of a point.

The first line contains the number of points on an interior opening perimeter. If no opening exists, then the first line must be 0. The first line contains the number of reinforcing bars. Each of the following lines contains 3 values: area, X and Y coordinates separated by comma of a bar.

The first line contains the number of factored loads defined. Each of the following lines contains 3 values: axial load, X-moment, and Y-moment separated by commas.

Menu Input Loads Factored Loads…. This section contains 2 lines describing slenderness parameters for column being designed. The first line is for X-axis parameters, and the second line is for Y-axis parameters. There are 8 values1 separated by commas in each line.

Menu Input Slenderness Design Column…. Column clear height 2. For all other codes the value must be 0. This section contains 2 lines describing slenderness parameters for column above and column below.

The first line is for column above, and the second line is for column below. There are 6 values separated by commas in line 1 for column above. Column Height 3. Column width along X 4. Column depth along Y 5. Concrete modulus of elasticity, Ec. There are 6 values separated by commas in line 2 for column below. There are 7 values separated by commas for each beam in each line.

Beam width 4. Beam depth 5. Beam section moment of inertia 6. There is 1 value in this section for slenderness factors. Menu Input Slenderness factors This section describes defined service loads. Menu Input Loads Service… The first line contains the number of service loads. Each of the following lines contains values for one service load. There are 25 values for each service load in one Line separated by commas. Dead Axial Load 2. Dead X-moment at top 3. Dead X-moment at bottom 4. Dead Y-moment at top 5.

Dead Y-moment at bottom 6. Live Axial Load 7. Live X-moment at top 8. Live X-moment at bottom 9. Live Y-moment at top Live Y-moment at bottom Wind Axial Load Wind X-moment at top Wind X-moment at bottom Wind Y-moment at top Wind Y-moment at bottom Axial Load X-moment at top X-moment at bottom Y-moment at top Y-moment at bottom Snow Axial Load Snow X-moment at top Snow X-moment at bottom Snow Y-moment at top Snow Y-moment at bottom.

This section describes defined load combinations. Each of the following lines contains load factors for one load combination. This section contains user-defined reinforcing bars. Menu Options Reinforcement… The first line contains the number of defined bars.

Each of the following lines contains values for one bar separated by commas. To convert from To Multiply by in. To convert from To Multiply by m mm in StructurePoint, LLC. Open navigation menu. Close suggestions Search Search. User Settings. Skip carousel. Carousel Previous. Carousel Next. What is Scribd? Explore Ebooks. Bestsellers Editors’ Picks All Ebooks. Explore Audiobooks. Bestsellers Editors’ Picks All audiobooks. Explore Magazines.

Editors’ Picks All magazines. Explore Podcasts All podcasts. Difficulty Beginner Intermediate Advanced. Explore Documents. SpColumn Manual. Uploaded by Jahdiel. Did you find this document useful? Is this content inappropriate? Report this Document. Flag for inappropriate content. Download now. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Version 6. Thus, a positive bending moment about the x-axis, Mx, produces tension at the top face of the section and The smaller and the larger factored end moments are then determined based on absolute values of magnified top and bottom end moments When moment magnification along the length of a compression member is considered, the following procedure is followed: 1.

Figure Main Window Control Menu The Control menu is located in the upper-left corner of the window and includes commands for sizing, moving, enlarging, restoring, and closing the window, as well as switching to other applications.

Title Bar The Title Bar displays the name of the application spColumn in this case , along with the name of the current data file in use. Toolbar The Toolbar is located directly below the Menu bar.

Information Bar The Information bar is located on the left side of the spColumn window. Graphics Area The Graphics Area covers most of the window. Revert Discards any changes to the data file and returns to the most recently saved version of the data file. Print Report Provides the option to print Default report or Customize the report before printing. Recent Data File List Provides quick access to up to four recently open data files. Exit Ends the spColumn program.

General Information The General Information command allows you to enter the project, column and engineer names. Material Properties The Material Properties command enables you to input material properties for concrete and reinforcing steel. Section Rectangular: Input the dimensions of a rectangular section. Circular: Input the diameter of a circular section. Reinforcement All Sides Equal: Input a reinforcement pattern in which all the bars are of one size, and the number of bars is the same on all four sides of a rectangular layout or are equally spaced for a circular layout.

In uniaxial case the program also reports the depth of neutral axis and maximum steel strain corresponding to the calculated moment capacity. For the ACI code, the value of strength reduction factor is also reported. The user has full control over the combinations. The program contains predefined built into the program default primary load combinations for the supported codes.

These default combinations are created when starting a new project. ACI , 5. For the CSA A A; CSAA If slenderness effects are to be checked and the column is found to beslender, the applied moments are magnified according to Procedures 2. Foreach calculated factored load, the same computations described in a above areperformed. For ACI code,strength reduction factor is also reported.

The following key points are used by the. For ACI code, an additional control point is introduced where maximum steelstrain is equal to 0. For ACI code, strength reduction factors are also reported. The program also computes the interaction diagram uniaxial runs or the three-dimensionalfailure surface biaxial runs of the input section. The values of maximum compressive axial loadcapacity and maximum tensile load capacity are computed. These two values set the range withinwhich the moment capacities are computed for a predetermined number of axial load values.

Moment capacities about the orthogonal axis are ignored. To compute the moment capacity at a certain level of axial load, the neutral axis angle is held constant, parallel to the selected axis.

The neutral axis depth is adjusted to arrive at the desired axial load capacity. This is done for all the predetermined values of axial load. For eachlevel of axial load, the section is rotated in degree increments from 0 degrees to degrees and the Mx and My moment capacities are computed. Thus for each level ofaxial load, an Mx-My contour is developed. Repeating this for the entire range of axialloads, the three-dimensional failure surface is computed.

A three-dimensionalvisualization of the resulting entire nominal and factored failure surface is provided tosupport enhanced understanding of the section capacity. Also for each point on the interaction diagram or on the three-dimensional failure surface, theprogram calculates the location of the neutral axis expressed in terms of depth and angle of theneutral axis , maximum steel strain, and for ACI codes only the strength reduction factor.

Theseresults are reported for the maximum capacity of the section based on the ultimate limit states andnot for the given loading input. The information can however be used to draw conclusions or makeadditional calculations for a given loading condition.

Based on the specified minimum, maximum and increment specified for the section andthe reinforcing bars, the program selects the smallest section with the least amount ofreinforcement for which the load-moment capacity exceeds the applied loads. If serviceloads are input, they are factored using the input load combinations. Depending on the. The program starts the design by trying the smallest section minimum dimensions andthe least amount of reinforcing bars.

The program verifies that the ratio of providedreinforcement is always within the specified minimum and maximum ratios. Furthermore,unless otherwise specified by the user33, the bar spacing is always kept greater than orequal to the larger of 1.

A section fails the design if, for the design axial load, the ratio of design-to-appliedmoment is less than 1. Once a section passes the design, its capacity is computed and the calculations explainedin Procedure 2. For members with large cross sectional area spColumn sometimes warns the user with thefollowing message Cannot achieve desired accuracy.

This results when the programcannot meet the predefined convergence criteria and the corresponding point on theinteraction diagram may be slightly off. The convergence criteria is more stringent thanrequired in engineering practice, however, the shape of the interaction diagram should beverified to be relatively smooth and free of unexpected discontinuity. This procedure accounts for moment magnification due to second-order effects at ends of columnsin sway frames If properties of framing members are input, spColumn computes the effective lengthfactor, ks, for sway condition using the following equation The user may select spacing greater than the default value to take into account tolerances for reinforce-ment placement see ACI , Ref [5] and other project specific considerations.

ACI , 6. Exact formula derived in Ref. For a hinged end, is very large. In this case,the program outputs The moment of inertia used in computing is the gross moment of inertia multiplied by the cracked section coefficients38 specifiedin the Slenderness Factors dialog box.

For the ACI code39, slenderness effects will be considered if. For the CSAstandards, all sway columns are designed for slenderness effects. A more exact method must be used. In this case, the programissues a warning message and aborts design or investigation procedure except forcalculations per ACI , ACI , and ACI where limit of does not explicitly apply and the program continues calculations after showing thewarning message.

Factored moments, Ms,top and Ms,bot, due to lateral loads wind and earthquake assumed. ACI , 2. Assuming that shear due to lateral loads is not sustained in most frames44,the ds is taken as zero with the exception of strength and stability of the structure as awhole under factored gravity loads described in Step The smaller and the larger factored end moments are then determined based on absolutevalues of magnified top and bottom end moments.

ACI , R6. However, the ratio can vary depending on the combination under consideration. In this case, it will beconservative to use the highest value of the ratio. While design codes define moment M2 as always positive and the sign of moment M1depending on single or double curvature bending49, spColumn retains actual signs ofmoments M1 and M2. This revision ensures proper comparison against negative andpositive moment capacities of unsymmetrical sections see Figure Strength and stability of the structure as a whole under factored gravity loads50 is ensuredby checking that the value of the moment magnification factor, s.

The d factor for the load combination under consideration is equal to themaximum sustained factored axial load to the maximum factored axial load. This procedure accounts for moment magnification due to second-order effect along the length ofcompression members that are part of either nonsway51 or sway frames In nonsway frames,moment magnification along length is neglected by the program if the condition in Step 3 issatisfied.

Since various published examplesof columns designed per ACI , ACI , and ACI do not combine momentmagnification at ends and along length of columns in sway frames54, spColumn optionally allowsnot considering moment magnification along the length of a column in a sway frame based onengineering judgment of the user.

When moment magnification along the length of a compression member is considered, thefollowing procedure is followed:. The effective length factor, k, is either entered by the user or calculated by the program. The value of k must be between 0. Smaller values can be used if justified by analysis. Ifproperties of framing members are input, spColumn computes the effective length factor,k, for nonsway condition from the following equation Moments of inertia used in computing factors are gross momentsof inertia multiplied by the cracked section coefficients57 specified in the Slenderness.

ACI , Eq. See Example Factors dialog box. Moments at column ends, M1 and M2, are calculated, where M1 is the moment with the. For columnsin nonsway frames, the end moments will be equal to the factored applied first ordermoment.

For columns in sway frames, the end moments will be the moments M1 and M2calculated in the procedure for moment magnification at ends of compression member. While design codes define moment M2 as always positive and the sign of moment M1depending on single or double curvature bending58, spColumn retains actual signs ofmoments M1 and M2 to ensure proper comparison of resulting magnified moments againstnegative and positive moment capacities of unsymmetrical sections see Figure If the ratio exceeds , slenderness effects cannot be accounted for using momentmagnification procedure This is consistent with theassumption made above in Step 2.

The value of dns is not taken greater than 1. The program also calculates moment Mc based on the smallerend moment, M1, to account for scenario when M1 and M2 are of different sign doublecurvature bending. For an unsymmetrical section, the smaller moment, M1, may governthe design when the moment capacity on the negative side of the interaction diagram issmaller than the moment capacity on the positive side see Figure Figure Case of unsymmetrical section bent in double curvature M1 and M2 of different sign with the smaller end moment, M1, governing the design.

Columnswith second-order moment to first-order moment ratios exceeding 1. Cutoff value of Mmin is applied to in order to avoid unduly large ratios in cases where moments are smaller than Mmin. If only magnification at ends is considered i. If only moment is equal to zero, the program willreport the ratio as a large value.

Kamara, Lawrence C. Novak and Basile G. Rabbat, Portland Cement Association, Kamara, and Lawrence C. Novak, Portland Cement Association, The spColumn Interface will appear after the program is started as shown below. The program name and current data filename is shown in the Title Bar. All the menu commands can be accessed from the Menu Barand some frequently used commands also can be accessed from the buttons in the Toolbar.

The Status Bar shows the current state of the program. The Control menu is located in the upper-left corner of the window and includes commandsfor sizing, moving, enlarging, restoring, and closing the window, as well as switching to otherapplications. The Title Bar displays the name of the application spColumn in this case , along with thename of the current data file in use. If the data has not been saved into a file, the word Untitledis displayed in the Title Bar. The Menu Bar is located directly beneath the Title Bar.

It lists the available menus. There isa total of 6 distinct drop-down menus accessible from the Menu Bar. The majority ofcommands appearing in the drop-down menus are also accessible via the programs MainWindow area. The Toolbar is located directly below the Menu bar. It contains a collection of buttons oricons that provide a shortcut to accessing the menu commands.

The Toolbar buttons can onlybe accessed using the mouse. The Information bar is located on the left side of the spColumn window. The top part displaysthe column cross section. The bottom part is a list of selected input data echo.

The Status Bar is located directly beneath the programs Main Window area. It displaysimportant information such as units, design code, cursor position, and helpful messages.

The File menu gives access to file operations, printingoperations and to exiting the spColumn program. Clears any input data and returns the data to the defaultvalues so that a new data file may be input. Exports graphical report screen printout to Enhanced Metafile Format EMF file readableby most graphics and word processing programs. Discards any changes to the data file and returns to the most recently saved version of the datafile.

This option will only be available if the data file has been previously saved and there havebeen modifications done on the data file since.

Do not save the data file immediately prior toreverting otherwise this command will have no effect. Displays Print dialog box and prints the results similarly as they appear on the screen.

Ends the spColumn program. If you have made any changes to your data and have not savedthem, spColumn will prompt you whether you want to save or abandon any changes you havemade before you exit.

The Input Menu includes commands used to input the data neededto define a problem. The General Information command allows you to enter theproject, column and engineer names. It also allows the selection ofunits, run options, run axis and slenderness consideration. The Material Properties command enables you to input material properties for concrete andreinforcing steel. Irregular: Initiates spSection module to define an irregularly shaped section.

Available underinvestigation option only. See Chapter 6 for spSection module. All Sides Equal: Input a reinforcement pattern in which all the bars are of one size, and thenumber of bars is the same on all four sides of a rectangular layout or are equally spaced for acircular layout. Number of bars should be enter as multiple of four 4. Available forrectangular and circular sections. Equal Spacing: Input a reinforcement pattern in which all bars are of one size and areuniformly spaced on all four sides of a rectangular layout.

Number of bars should be enteredas multiple of four 4. Available for rectangular sections only. Sides Different: Input a reinforcement pattern in which each one of the four sides of arectangular section has a certain number of bars and a certain bar size. Available forrectangular sections only. Irregular Pattern: Input a reinforcement pattern in such a way that bars of any size can beplaced anywhere within the column section.

Confinement: Input confinement-related data such as the capacity reduction factors and thesize of ties associated with the longitudinal bar size. X-Beams: Input data needed for slenderness related to beams perpendicular to the x-axisframing into the design column at top and bottom joints. Y-Beams: Input data needed for slenderness related to beams perpendicular to the y-axisframing into the design column at top and bottom joints.

Factors: Slenderness factors related to stiffness reduction factor and cracked-sectioncoefficients. Code defaults are selected by default. However, user-defined selection is alsoavailable. Factored: Input factored axial loads and moments.

This option is available for non-slendercolumns only. Service: Input service-level dead, live, wind, earthquake, and snow axial loads and momentsabout the active axis. Moments are input at the top and at the bottom of the column.

Thisoption is available for both slender and non-slender columns. Control Points: If chosen, the program will compute key points on the interaction diagram. Inaddition, the splice regions are shown on the interaction diagram. This option is available fornon-slender columns under the investigation option only. Also the splice lines are only shownfor uniaxial runs. Axial Loads: Input a group of axial loads with an initial value, a final value, and an increment.

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Spcolumn v4.80 free download

Strength Of Materials. The value of k must be between 0. It is suggested the Mx-Mycontours be investigated carefully for each factored axial load level. In this case, the programissues a warning message and aborts design or investigation procedure except forcalculations per ACI , ACI , and ACI where limit of does not explicitly apply and the program continues calculations after showing thewarning message.

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Spcolumn v free download (Windows) – StructurePoint spColumn Overview

All products, corporate names, trademarks, service marks, and trade names referenced in this material are the property of their respective owners and are used only for привожу ссылку explanation without intent to infringe.

The section can be rectangular, round or irregular, with any reinforcement layout or pattern. Slenderness effects can be considered. The program offers investigation of irregularly shaped, reinforced concrete column sections that may contain openings or boundary elements.

Widely used for design of shear walls, bridge piers as well as typical framing elements in buildings, spColumn can investigate sections that are impossible to find on design charts or do by hand calculations.

You can obtain the P-M interaction diagrams from both uniaxial and biaxial runs, as well as the Mx-My moment contour plots from biaxial runs for even the most irregular column and shear wall sections. Slenderness effects producing magnified moments may be included in the investigation. Any computer running Microsoft Windows Vista SP2, Windows 7, Windows 8, or Windows 10 operating system with 32 or 64 bit processing is sufficient to run the spColumn program.

For instructions on how to troubleshoot system specific installation and licensing issues, please refer to support pages on StructurePoint website at www. The following terms http://replace.me/24648.txt used throughout this manual. A brief explanation is given to help spcolumn v4.80 free download you with them. Windows refers to spcolumn v4.80 free download Microsoft Windows environment as listed in System Requirements.

Click on means to position the cursor on top of a designated item http://replace.me/13451.txt location and press and release the left-mouse button unless instructed to use the right-mouse button. Double-click on means to position the cursor on top of a designated item or location and press and release the left-mouse button twice in quick succession. To help you locate and interpret information easily, the spColumn manual adheres to the following text format.

Italic indicates a glossary item, or emphasizes a given word or phrase. Bold indicates the name of a menu or a menu item command such as File or Save. Mono-space indicates something you should enter with the keyboard.

The plus sign indicates that you should press and hold the first key while pressing the second key, then release both keys. For instructions on how to install, purchase, and license StructurePoint software please refer to support pages on StructurePoint spcolumn v4.80 free download at www.

The analysis of the reinforced concrete section performed by spColumn conforms to the provisions of the Strength Design Method1 and Unified Design Provisions2 and is based on the following assumptions. In other words, plane sections normal to the axis of bending are assumed to remain plane after bending.

For ACI code7, the maximum uniform concrete compressive stress, fc, is 0. For CSA A For ACI Ref. ACI4. ACI CSA A For consistency with Eq. Stress in spcolumn v4.80 free download reinforcing steel below the yield strength, fy, is directly proportional to the strain. For strains greater than that corresponding to the yield strength, the reinforcement stress remains constant and equal to fy.

Reinforcing steel yield strength must be within customary ranges. The modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec is computed as follows unless otherwise specified by the user :. The modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel15, Es, is taken as 29, ksiMPa unless otherwise specified by the user. The computed compression controlled strain limit cannot exceed 0.

ACI M, Re FS su 4 for ltant ces. Stress in the reinforcement is computed based on the strain at the centroid of each reinforcing bar.

All moments are referenced to the geometric centroid of the gross читать далее section neglecting the reinforcement. For the ACI spcolumn v4.80 free download, the nominal unreduced capacity of the section is first computed.

Axial Load, P Pn. Tension Compression 0. Tension-controlled limit. Pure Bending Moment, M fy 0. Figure illustrates variation of the spcolumn v4.80 free download reduction factor with net tensile spcolumn v4.80 free download in extreme tension steel and the impact of the strength reduction factor on the spcolumn v4.80 free download and flexural capacity interaction diagram.

Consequently, the resulting factored axial capacity i. Typically, the rate of axial capacity decrease dominates over the rate of strength reduction increase and thus the factored axial load capacity decreases as well.

For certain classes of sections e. This unusual increase in axial load capacity is not illustrated by interaction diagrams produced by the program and is not considered for design and investigation of cross-sections.

It will be flagged to inform the user, however, when the program is run using Control Points as the load type. Where unsymmetrical members e. C-shaped or U-shaped sections are investigated under biaxial bending, the Mx-My contour diagram occasionally crosses the X or Y axes more than once. This presents an unusual situation where a load point may exist outside of the Mx-My.

It is suggested the Mx-My contours be investigated carefully for each factored axial load level. The material resistance factors are:. Additionally, for CSA A In the investigation mode the program will calculate capacity for any provided area of reinforcement.

However, if the reinforcement area falls below the code-specified24 minimum of 0. By default Architectural option is selected for which the capacity of the section is reduced.

This produces the same effect as reducing the effective concrete area25 to achieve ratio download gimp for windows filehippo reinforcement area to gross concrete area equal to 0. For the CSA standards26, the factored axial and flexural resistances are multiplied by ratio 0. This option is provided for informational purposes only, since per all codes supported by spColumn, capacity of compression members with reinforcement area less than 0.

Under the Design option, spcolumn v4.80 free download reinforcement ratio cannot be less than основываясь на этих данных. For Architectural type, the capacity of the designed column is reduced as described above. Additionally, User Defined type is provided in the design criteria, which allows designs with reinforcement ratios not less than 0.

No reduction in capacity is applied for User Defined column type. Positive axial forces are compressive and negative axial forces are tensile. Looking in plan at the section with z-axis pointing outwards, the positive x-axis points to the spcolumn v4.80 free download and the positive y-axis points up.

For this section, vectors spcolumn v4.80 free download positive bending moments have the same orientation as their corresponding axes x and y. Thus, a positive bending moment about the x-axis, Mx, produces tension at the top face of the section and.

ACITable A positive bending moment about the y-axis, My, produces tension at the left face spcolumn v4.80 free download the section and compression at the right face. If service loads are input, moment loads at the upper top and lower bottom ends of the column are needed.

Top and bottom moment loads of opposite signs produce single curvature bending. Top and bottom moment loads of the same sign produce double curvature bending. Positive moment loads at the upper end of the column coincide with positive bending moments. However, at the lower end, positive moment loads produce effects spcolumn v4.80 free download to positive bending moments. Therefore, spColumn changes the sign of the service moment at the lower end to convert it from a перейти на страницу load to a spcolumn v4.80 free download moment.

Axial load download driver bluetooth free assumed to be constant so it is input only as for the upper end where positive axial load coincides with positive axial force.

If factored loads are input, they are considered to be applied spcolumn v4.80 free download a section pointing upwards so that they have the same orientations as positive axial force and positive bending moments. The convention for the slenderness input of beam and column dimensions and their orientation is presented in Figure Beams above the columns are shown.

Same convention applies to beam below spcolumn v4.80 free download column. X-Beam Above Left. X-Beam Below Right. For a biaxial run, the computed Mx and My moment capacities are at the same angle as that produced by the applied Mx and My moments.

In uniaxial case the program also reports the depth of neutral axis and maximum steel strain corresponding to the calculated moment capacity. For the ACI code, the value of strength reduction factor is also reported. The user has full control over the combinations.

The program contains predefined built into the program default primary load combinations for the supported codes. These default combinations are created when starting a new project. ACI5. A; CSA A If slenderness effects are to be checked and the column is found to be slender, the applied moments spcolumn v4.80 free download magnified according to Procedures 2. For each calculated factored load, the same computations described in a above are performed. For ACI code, strength reduction factor is also reported.

The following key points are used by the. For ACI code, an additional control point is introduced where maximum steel strain is equal to 0. For ACI code, strength reduction factors are also reported.

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