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(PDF) Aldo Rossi – The Architecture of the city | BENEDETTA ESPOSITO – replace.me
Giampaolo Pozzo, owner of Udinese, Granada and Watford. They are the real-life models for the characters of the film ‘The Intouchables’ which was awarded a special award this year. The aristocratic man is in a wheelchair after crashing with a hangglider.
Line engraving, 18th or 19th century. He was one of the signatories of the Peace of Paris in Colored engraving. Augustine and the Child on the Seashore, Andrea Pozzo, — Antonio, Restaurant, Locarno, Ticino, Switzerland,. Princess consort of Spain. Wife of Amadeo I. Engraving by Paris. The Spanish and American Illustration, It was cast in and again in , weight kg 1, lb. Introduction: A method of time-to-onset TTO signal detection for screening unexpected temporal patterns from vaccine spontaneous report data has been published in .
Due to the large number of spontaneous reports associated to covid vaccines, highly significant TTO signals could be detected whereas there are no clinically relevant unexpected temporal patterns. Methods: The revised method used only the most predictive measure  of the two Kolmogorov-Smirnov KS tests originally designed: the p-value of the KS test of the TTO distribution of a given event post a given vaccine against the TTO distribution of the same event post other vaccines. A threshold on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, that can have values between 0 and for no difference between time-to-onset distributions and 1 for extreme differences—was set at 0.
A threshold on the p-value of the KS test was set at 0. The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System was prospectively frozen every week of the first quarter and the revised TTO signal detection method was prospectively applied on the two covid vaccines. The performance in detecting events that were posteriori determined as causally related to the exposure of the covid vaccines, namely Pericarditis and Myocarditis, was retrospectively assessed.
Conclusion: The revised TTO method allowed early detection of unexpected TTO patterns post exposure to covid vaccines by controlling both the level of significance and the magnitude of difference between the TTO distributions in a context of mass vaccination where individual case review is challenging.
Van Holle L et al. Using time-to-onset for detecting safety signals in spontaneous reports of adverse events following immunization: a proof-of-concept study, PDS 21 6 , — Use of logistic regression to combine two causality criteria for signal detection in vaccine spontaneous report data, Drug Safety 37 12 , — With the fast-tracked development and concurrent introduction of vaccines in all countries, there is a need for equitable safety surveillance to monitor adverse events following immunization AEFIs in high-income and low- and middle-income countries LMICs.
Reports from females made up The highest number of reports came from persons 18—44 years. Sputnik V contributed the highest percentage of AEs per vaccine for Africa. Headache, pyrexia, injection site pain, dizziness, and chills were the top 5 reported AEs for Africa and RoW.
Qualitative findings revealed decisions of many funding organizations to fund safety surveillance in LMICs were influenced by considerations about country priorities, the perceived utility of the evidence generated for local decision making, and the contributions to global health by safety surveillance systems.
Funding decisions by donor organizations were influenced by country priorities and the perceived value added by data generated from safety surveillance systems in LMICs to local and global decision making. Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker. The New York Times [Internet]. Introduction: Therapeutic advances have reduced morbidity and mortality, but have led to an increase in adverse drug events ADE. This is a case-control type study, with the original information from the administrative data from the hospital information system of the public health system in Brazil-SIH-SUS, in the period from to After applying the exclusion criteria, , hospital admissions associated with at least one ADE were included in the study.
The proportion of patients with ADE in hospitalizations was 0. Drug poisoning and drug abuse are the adverse event classes most associated with increased risk of death. This study, confirm that the SIH-SUS is a robust source of data for the field of pharmacovigilance, enabling the identification of risk factors for death and facilitating the monitoring of ADEs in the hospital environment. Mortality among patients due to adverse drug reactions that occur following hospitalisation: a meta-analysis.
Prospective identification versus administrative coding of adverse drug reaction-related hospitalizations in the elderly: A comparative analysis. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. Evaluating adverse drug event reporting in administrative data from emergency departments: a validation study. Stausberg J, Hasford J. Drug-related admissions and hospital-acquired adverse drug events in Germany: a longitudinal analysis from to of ICDcoded routine data.
Introduction: Transplant recipients are chronically ill patients, who require lifelong drug therapies to prevent reject and graft loss. To date, there is no consensus on the optimal immunosuppressive strategy .
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of maintenance immunosuppressive drug therapies in kidney transplant. Methods: A retrospective multicentre observational study, involving 4 Italian regions, was conducted based on the national transplant Information system and regional healthcare claims data. Specifically, the regional analytical datasets regarding incident patients underwent to kidney transplant in the years —19 were created using an open-source tool for distributed analysis.
Results: Overall, 3, kidney recipients were considered, of which During a median follow-up period of 4. Among safety outcomes, serious infections had the highest incidence 9. Conclusion: In clinical practice, a significantly better benefit profile has been demonstrated for kidney recipients treated with TAC compared to CsA. In particular, the combination of TAC and mTOR appears to be the optimal strategy reducing the incidence of severe infections.
Our findings on long term risk-benefit profile of immunosuppressive therapy may be helpful to define the optimal drug therapy in kidney recipients. Comparison of tacrolimus and cyclosporine for immunosuppression after renal transplantation: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. Target of rapamycin inhibitors TOR-I; sirolimus and everolimus for primary immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Timing of mTORI usage and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Int J Med Sci. Published Jan 9. Due to the small sample size of pivotal trials in pediatrics, real-world evidence on the safety of those vaccines in the pediatric population is urgently required.
Objective: i To investigate the safety of COVID vaccines by measuring frequencies of solicited and serious adverse events following immunization AEFIs with the first and the second doses of vaccines through active surveillance and, ii to compare the results with the published clinicaltrials in children and adolescents.
Of them, only Overall, Conclusion: This study confirmed safety profile of COVID vaccines in the pediatric population as already documented in the pivotal trials, with a high frequency of local solicited adverse events and an extremely low rate of serious adverse events.
Introduction: Advances in the treatment of cancer in young patients have led to great improvements in life expectancy. However, treatment with chemo or radiotherapy causes reduction of sperm counts often to azoospermic levels that may persist for several years or be permanent. Oligospermia or azoospermia and long-lasting testicular atrophy are common adverse consequences of cancer treatment 1.
Cases of oligospermia and azoospermia were identified using MedDRA v No Dis-Rep was found for any of the 14 AA TKIs: acalabrutinib, axitinib, cabozantinib, dacomitinib, lenvatinib, neratinib, nintedanib, pazopanib, ponatinib, regorafenib, sorafenib, sunitinib, tivozanib and vandetanib. The analysis in VigiBase database yielded similar results.
Our results however, should be interpreted with caution as disproportionality analyses are hypothesis generating rather than hypothesis testing. Meistrich, M. Clinical drug investigation. Bate A, Evans S. Quantitative signal detection using spontaneous ADR reporting. A comparison of measures of disproportionality for signal detection in spontaneous reporting systems for adverse drug reactions.
Skin lightening products contain high concentrations of harmful ingredients such as hydroquinone, mercurials, and corticosteroids, and are reported to cause serious complications such as hyperpigmentation, exogenous ochronosis, wound dehiscence, nephropathy, steroid addiction syndrome, predisposition to infections, and other endocrinologic complications.
Despite all these public health risks, they have been used in many countries without regulation and consultation of healthcare professionals 3. Similarly, in Eritrea, there is uncontrolled marketing and use of SLAs even those with banned harmful ingredients. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the perception and utilization of SLAs among females of Asmara, the capital city of Eritrea.
Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in representative samples of all beauty salons available in Asmara between May and July The study participants were selected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique.
The data collected through face-to-face interview was entered and analyzed using CSPro 7. Results: The study enrolled females. The majority of the respondents agreed that SLAs can make someone white About two-third Of those who ever used SLAs, About half of the respondents With the use of SLAs, Employed females AOR: 1.
Conclusion: Utilization of SLAs among females was prevalent. They were satisfied with its use despite experiencing adverse effects which urges coordinated efforts in tightening the regulation of cosmetics in general and establishment of cosmetovigilance systems in particular. Widespread use of toxic skin lightening compounds: medical and psychosocial aspects. Dermatologic Clinics, Afr Health Sci.
The global prevalence and correlates of skin bleaching: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Int J Dermatol. Introduction: Drug therapy in paediatrics is often associated with uncertainties due to lack of data from clinical trials.
Due to this off-label use, missing paediatric dosage forms and complex dose calculations, medication errors ME occur up to three times more frequently compared to adults . Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the nature, characteristics and preventability of drug-related hospital admissions in paediatrics.
If parents had given consent for data transfer and further analysis, the suspected ADRs resp. MEs were subsequently validated by a blinded, independent expert team . All ADRs and MEs were assessed with regard to their nature, preventability, severity and drug association. Results: Of Consent for further analysis was obtained for 9. Allergic conditions, seizures incl. Treatment noncompliance, accidental exposure to product and dosing problems mainly underdosing were primarily identified as MEs in connection with the use of antiepileptic drugs, insulins and analogues and other beta-lactam-antibacterials.
Conclusion: Drug-related hospital admissions play a significant role in paediatrics. Moreover, almost half of them are considered preventable and therefore result in unnecessary harm and treatment costs. Dosing databases, training, and systematic screening for ADRs and MEs have great potential to increase the safety of drug therapy in children. Kimland, E. Odlind, Off-label drug use in pediatric patients.
Clin Pharmacol Ther, Magalhaes, J. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, Kaushal, R. JAMA, Smyth, R. PLoS One, Gallagher, R. Schulze, C. J Patient Saf, The lack of staff trained in PV is one of the most serious limiting factors affecting the development of PV in resource-constrained settings. Previous experiences suggest that blending learning programmes can be implemented in resource-limited countries to train health care professionals HCP with remarkable gains in terms of knowledge acquisition.
Methods: We developed the blended-courses integrated with a Train of Trainers scheme . Two e-learning courses were made available on a web-based application, together with a manual on how to combine the e-learning courses together with face-to-face interactions. The blended course were given in Tanzania, Eswatini and Nigeria.
Results: In the three countries 95 participants were trained Table 1. All participants completed the two courses and the mean score of the post-test was significantly greater than on the pre-test Table 1. In the second level, the participants from the first training were training others. The majority of respondents to questionnaires have been satisfied, declared they felt more involved in PV and reported at least an ADR after the training both in the first and second level.
The trends of reporting increased in the twelve months after the training if compared to the previous twelve months: vs and vs ICSRs were reported to Vigibase for Tanzania and Eswatini National Agency respectively. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that a blended course can reach an important number of participants and improve their knowledge. It is difficult to establish how much of the increase of reports was attributed to the blended learning training.
Alammary A. Blended learning models for introductory programming courses: a systematic review. Plos one. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of EDCTP.
Introduction: Considering data from the literature in favor of active educational intervention to teach pharmacovigilance, we describe an innovative model of distance learning clinical reasoning sessions CRS of pharmacovigilance with 3rd year medical French students.
Objective: The three main objectives were to identify the elements necessary for the diagnosis of an adverse drug reaction, report an adverse drug reaction and perform drug causality assessment. Methods: The training was organized in 3 stages. First, students practiced clinical reasoning CRS by conducting fictive pharmacovigilance telehealth consultations. Second, students wrote a medical letter summarizing the telehealth consultation and analyzing the drug causality assessment.
This letter was sent to the teacher for a graded evaluation. In the third stage was a debriefing course with all the students. Results: Of the third-year medical students enrolled in this course, participated in the distance learning CRS. The evaluation received feedback from students, with an average score of 8. The qualitative evaluation had only positive feedback.
The students appreciated the different format of the teaching, with the possibility to be active. Conclusion: Through distance CRS of pharmacovigilance, medical students’ competences to identify and report adverse drug reactions were tested.
The students experienced the pharmacovigilance skills necessary to detect adverse drug reactions in a manner directly relevant to patient care. The overall evaluation of the students is in favor of this type of method. Methods: This research used a qualitative inductive methodology through thematic analysis.
The first step was to identify, through a literature review, current practices for herbal pharmacovigilance. Based on the findings a semi-structured interview guide was designed, and purposive sampling was used to recruit the interview participants. By using a snowballing technique more potential participants were reached.
Most of these recommendations are applicable worldwide, while some are limited to certain regions. Tong, A. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research COREQ : a item checklist for interviews and focus groups.
International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 19 6 , — Introduction: Although medical cannabis MC has been available in Canada since , lack of recognition of MC as a drug has restricted patient access. The Quebec College of Physicians, between and , authorized MC use only within a research framework.
Follow-up ended due to either MC discontinuation, loss to follow-up, 3 years follow-up, or end of data collection May , 6 months after the last patient in. Data were collected at inclusion and at follow-up visits every 3 months for the first 2 years, then at least once per year in the third year.
MC mode of administration ingestion, inhalation, other , and cannabinoid content ratio tetrahydrocannabinol THC -dominant, cannabidiol CBD -dominant, or balanced were documented. Results: 2, patients were enrolled in the registry mean age Over follow-up, 3. Reports included a total of AEs average 1.
The most common PTs were dizziness Conclusion: There were no new safety concerns identified in the Registry, although notable differences in AE profile between modes of administration and cannabinoid content ratios should be considered by health professionals. Further work identifying and managing risk factors for AEs is warranted to maintain a favorable risk-benefit ratio for MC.
Introduction: Dengue is one of top ten global health threats and is a serious burden in the Philippines. Dengvaxia immunization program was launched on April for children 9—year-olds in three regions with high statistics of dengue, hospitalization, and deaths. This was coincidentally the campaign period for national elections. Use of vaccine, once available, was part of a strategy to control epidemic. Current measures were inadequate. What started as vaccine-vigilance information sparked a public outcry.
This led to a series of parliamentary investigations, traditional and social media misinformation and disinformation vilifying the health decision makers and the company, and criminal charges filed against over 20 individuals by the state over alleged unproven vaccine caused deaths. Despite attempts to correct these narratives by a few health professionals, the damage to institution, the program, the product, and individuals have been done.
The consequences of such actions of emotional approach without understanding the science have resulted in creating general vaccine rejection, hesitancy, other outbreaks such as measles, lowered confidence even with recent COVID vaccines. Objective: This abstract aim to describe the situation at that time in the Philippines and extract lessons that will inform better risk communications during crisis. Results: Some of the important lessons learned are in risk management and communications. Adverse health product information should be announced with circumspect considering the level of health literacy and risk appreciation in a country.
Partisan politics interfered with poorly understood science, fueled by imprudent comments by officials and health professionals who spoke out of turn, amplified by the media and created chaos.
The fear was so palpable that enlightened health professionals refused to provide countervailing facts. Reinstating the vaccine would be perceived as the government had back-pedaled on a mistake. In the meantime, the drama contributed to vaccination hesitancy and outbreaks. Conclusion: Public health decisions are policy and regulatory decisions anchored in ethical and utilitarian principles. Edillo et al.
Economic Cost and Burden of Dengue in the Philippines. Vannice, et al Mendoza, Dayrit, Valenzuela. Dengue researcher faces charges in vaccine fiasco. Lasco et. Medical populism and immunisation programmes: Illustrative examples and consequences for public health.
Trolleyology and the Dengue Vaccine Dilemma. Dayrit, Mendoza, Valenzuela The importance of effective risk communication and transparency: lessons from the dengue vaccine controversy in the Philippines.
Dengue vaccination: a more balanced approach is needed. Introduction: Vaccines are vital tools to control epidemic and pandemic diseases, such as COVID, demonstrating safety and effectiveness. However, rare adverse events of special interest AESIs following vaccination arise with every new emerging pathogen vaccine program. Adversomics, a set of technologies that measure the inventory of molecules e. The International Network of Special Immunization Services INSIS brings together vaccine safety, public health, and systems biology experts in middle- and high-income countries to investigate the causes of, and identify strategies to mitigate AESIs following vaccination insisvaccine.
Brighton Collaboration case definitions and harmonized protocols will be employed to collect detailed clinical data and serial blood samples suitable for adversomics e.
Integration of clinical and biological data will enable comparisons of analyte levels and immune responses within groups over time and between cases and controls. Global collaboration across five continents will ensure adequate sample size.
Conclusion: INSIS-led studies will provide insight into pathways triggered in these AESIs and susceptible populations to inform vaccine development strategies to reduce the potential to trigger pathways involved in AESIs, risk-benefit assessment, and personalized vaccination strategies.
Introduction: During the covid 19 period, several countries needed to set up or develop their pharmacovigilance systems, unfortunately containment and the closure of borders prevented the organisation of classic training sessions. Objective: The objective of this work is to present the pharmacovigilance simulation game developed by CAPM, RCC and the results of its pilot use with pharmacovigilants from 10 French-speaking African countries.
The game is based on good practices in Pharmacovigilance PV , and inspired by the different WHO guidelines, the experience of the Moroccan PV center, and behaviors consensually considered as the norm in PV. In fact, they are put in a real-life situation to choose actions and strategies for the development of a PV center and must be able to optimize the human and material resources at their disposal to make their center shine within their national health system but also at the level of the international PV network.
Better understand the challenges and outlooks linked to the creation and management of a PV center. Put into practice the theoretical concepts in causality assessment, signal detection and risk minimization actions. During the game, within 10 levels, participants have to set up a PV center following WHO pharmacovigilance indicators: a practical manual for the assessment of pharmacovigilance systems as structural indicators, process indicators and outcome indicators, and following the pharmacovigilance process from collecting data, analyzing them, detecting signals, and setting up national technical pharmacovigilance committee to discuss about safety signals and risk minimization actions to put in place.
Conclusion: The use of the game by the pharmacovigilantes during the pilot phase gave good feedback on the ease of use and the effectiveness of the game in capacity building in pharmacovigilance. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, pp.
Introduction: Pharmacovigilance has traditionally been a reactive science with a significant dependence on spontaneous adverse event reporting. The pandemic on the other hand has accelerated application of novel technologies and approaches to engaging with the patient, remote connected care at their home and dependence on technologies to supplement regular communication channels. Telemedicine is evolving rapidly and playing a key role in clinical interventions.
Objective: Digital Health and novel technologies offer a significant opportunity to enhance pharmacovigilance thru proactive patient monitoring, risk communication, personalized care plans and access to real world data. Leveraging such approaches will not only lead to early detection of risks but also to personalized interventions and improved patient outcomes. Educational material which is more interactive, visual and multi-dimensional can replace paper or text based risk communication material.
This could provide early signal detection in individual patients and enable proactive patient level pharmacovigilance. Educational and risk related material can be dynamically updated based on patient preferences, interactions and profiles.
Machine learning approaches which link material with outcome can enhance impact of pharmacovigilance methods and tools. In order to utilize the full potential of such options it is critical that the regulatory framework is updated to enable such approaches which complement traditional PV and can drive efficiencies and higher effectiveness in the risk communication process.
It seeks in this way to illustrate the analogous current which washes back and forth from drawing to drawing, andfrom writing to writing, in Rossi’s work. A city no longer inhabited, not simply left behind, The Texts of A nalogy but haunted by meaning and culture, this state of being haunted, which keeps the city jrom returning to nature.
The spiraI is associated with the form ofthe labyrinth, a construction which, ac- cording to classical myth, was the invention of Daedalus. Daedalus, as the only architect of mythology and the supposed inventor of many “wondrous” works of architecture, has become for history the symbol par excellence of the humanist architect.
As such, the labyrinth, Daedalus’s creation, can be considered emblematic of a humanist condition of architecture. But this is not the spiral’s only meaning. As an unfolding path or route, the spiral has also been interpreted as a psychological figure, the symbol of a process oftransformation. Thus, we are obliged to interpret Rossi’s use ofthe image on the cover ofhis book in two ways: first, in terms of the spiral as a mausoleum, as representing a symbolic pIace of death, in this case–even ifunconsciously on his part-that ofhumanism; and at the same time, in terms of the spiral as labyrinth, as representing a pIace of transformation.
The spiral has a further, more personal meaning for Rossi. It symbolizes his own rite of passage, his role as part of a generation progressively more distanced from the positivism ofmodern architecture by the collapse ofhistorical time and left drifting into an uncertain presento While this book in many ways is a critique of the Modern Movement, it nevertheless reflects an ambivalence with respect to modernism.
It suggests Rossi’s own uncertainty as much with the generai ideology ofmodernism as with the failure ofthe specific aspirations ofmodern ar- chitecture. Rossi’s anxiety with respect to modernism is thus refracted through his sympathy with its very concerns. It was, after all, modernism which focused on the city as one of architecture’s centrai problems.
Prior to modernism, cities were thought to have evolved over time through a process which was an imita- tion ofnaturallaw. But in the view ofthe polemicists ofthe Modern Movement, this natural time had run out, and in its piace succeeded the time ofhistoricism. For the architects ofthe early twentieth century, the appropriateness ofthe act of intervening clinically in the city’s historical and natural evolution was beyond questiono Supported by the enormous moral impetus of social and technological necessity which had replaced the model of natural evolution , theyattempted from the stronghold of their “castle of purity’ to storm the bastion of evils iden- tified with the nineteenth-century city.
To them the stakes appeared higher than they had ever been. In this heroic climate of modernism the city of modern ar- chitecture, supposedly born out of a rupture of history, was progressively pro- pelled by that very history toward the vision of a sanitized utopia. The perceived failure of modern architecture to realize this utopia-either to supersede the nineteenth-century city or to mitigate its destruction after the 3zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXWVUTSR Their disillu- sionment and anger were in direct proportion to modern architecture’s failure, as much with its unrealized aspirations-its castle of purity-as with their own sense of loss and the impossibility of return; these feelings were directed at the heroic fathers of modern architecture, both for having been and also for having failed.
For Rossi’s generation it was no longer possible to be a hero, no longer possible to be an idealist; the potential for such memories and fantasies had been taken away forever. No other generation had to folIow such a sense of expecta- tion with such a sense of loss. If we want to represent historical sequence in spatial terms we can only do it by jux- taposition in space: the same space cannot have two different contents It shows us howfar wearefrom mastering the characteristics of mentallife by rep- resenting them in pictorial terms.
Sigmund Freud Civilization and Its Discontents The Architecture of the City along with all of Rossi’s production is an attempt to build a different kind of castle from that of the moderns.
Proposing an other architecture, an other architect, and most impor- tantly, an other process for their understanding, it can be seen as an attempt to break not only from the traditional humanist definition of the relationship of ob- ject and subject, but also from the more recent modernist one.
Modernism pro- posed a new interpretation ofthe subject which was never fulfilled by modern ar- chitecture; in this respect modern architecture can be seen as simply an exten- sion of nineteenth-century functionalism. Rossi’s new construct begins as a critique of the city of modern architecture and from this goes on to propose an other object.
The other object, the architecture of the book’s title, is now defined in two ways: as the ultimate and verifiable data within the real city, and as an autonomous structure. Nor is its autonomy entirely that of modernism, of the discipline o architecture in itself. Rather, it resides in architecture’s specific processes anc its built reality.
This twofold idea of the city as ultimate data-an archaeological artifact-and o the city as autonomous structure not only characterizes the new city as an object but more importantly, and perhaps inadvertently, redefines its subject-the ar chitect himself. The g problematic nature of the practice of modern architecture with respect to the r theory ofmodernism has to do precisely with its inability to effect this separation n and thus its contamination with imperatives from the humanist conception.
I- Rossi intuitively understands this problem; but he cannot face the consequences oftaking on the unrealized program ofmodernism. If the subject and the object are to be independent, it is now the process, previously considered neutral, which must assume the forces which formerly were contained in the subject and the object. Into this new idea of process Rossi reintroduces the ele- l ments ofhistory and typology, but not as a nostalgia for narrative or a reductive I-z, scientism.
Rather, history becomes analogous to a “skeleton” whose condition. It is this skeleton e which bears the imprint ofthe actions that have taken place and will take pIace in the city. Typology, on the other hand, ,- becomes the instrument, the “apparatus”-to borrow a term which Rossi will later use in his Scientific Autobiography-oftime’s measurement; it attempts to be both logical and scientifico The skeleton and its measuring apparatus be come the process and ultimately the object ofthe autonomous researcher.
Historyand type, as components parts ofresearch, allow for transformations ofthemselves o which are “prearranged but still unforeseeable. For the skeleton links the o city to history. It is a history which is limited to the historiographical act-to a – pure knowledge of the past, without the historicizing imperative to determine – the future. For Rossi, historicism, the modernist critique ofhistory, is an imped- ‘- iment to invention. Historicism deals in causes or imperati ves while history fo- l- cuses on effects or facts.
The skeleton thus provides an analogue for Rossi’s un- a derstanding of history, for it is at once a structure and a ruin, a record of events n and a record of time, and in this sense a statement of facts and not causes. But these are not its only attributes. For it is also an object that can be used to study its own structure. The latter is of par- s ticular importance because the mere study ofstructure–ofthe vertebrae ofthe n skeleton-is far too generaI for Rossi.
Any generalized framework acts as a a mesh which always allows the most important parts to pass through-in this e case, the city’s most singular elements and those which give it its specificity. The skeleton’s nature as a collective artifact allows us to understand Rossi’s metaphor ofthe city as a giant man-made house, a macrocosm ofthe indi- viduaI house of mano Here the dissolution of scale becomes centraI to the argu- ‘- ment, as will be seen.
This giant house comes into being through a double pro- ,, cesso One process is that ofproduction, in the sense ofthe city as a work o fm a n – d ufaiu: manufacture , an object literally made by the hands of men; the second. The longer jl two main permanences in the city are housing and monuments. With respect to everynE the first, Rossi distinguishes between housing and individuaI houses.
Housing is ofthe fu a permanence in the city while individuaI houses are not; thus, a residential dis- events, i trict in the city may persist as such over many centuries, while individuaI houses teristicl within a district wilI tend to change. With respect to monuments, the relation- mark th ship is the opposite, for here it is the individuaI artifact that persists in the city. They are distinguished from housing, specific: the other primary element in the city, by their nature as a pIace of symbolic fune- characte tion, and thus a function related to time, as opposed to a pIace of conventionai which ar function, which is only related to use.
It implies a city which not only usesanc possesses a before and an after, but which is defined by their interrelationship. When a monument retards the process of urbanization, it is considered by Rossi to be This rels “pathological.
In the city whose analogue is the skeleton, such a ever, wl museum piece is like an embalmed body: it gives only the appearance of being shifts int alive. In this sense, the quasi-naturalistic urbanism of the contemporary ofthe ph “contextualists” is dialecticalIy opposed, in Rossi’s view, to the concept of evolutionary time.
For Rossi real time tends to erode and supersede the neatly Thus is c circumscribed and meticulously observed imagery of a specific urban context. In urban hi: light of the recent development of a so-calIed contextual urbanism which has the city,’ come to dominate urban thought some fifteen years after the originaI publication in its hist of this book, Rossi’s text can be seen as an anticipatory argument against the becomes “empty formalism” of context reductively seen as a pIan relationship of figure a classica and ground.
However, permanences in the city are not only “pathological. Artifacts like the Theater at Arles or the individua Palazzo della Ragione in Padua tend to synchronize with the process ofurbaniza- struct of tion because they are not defined only by an originaI or previous function, nor by ticular tr their context, but have survived precisely because of their form-one which is the objec able to accommodate different functions over time.
Here again, the analogue of former sr the skeleton can be seen to be quite precise. Like the skeleton which is not living analytica and has lost its originaI function, only its form remaining intact, the propelling skeleton permanence continues to function as a record oftime. This argument, which in it- measure. For Rossi, the city is a theater ofhuman events. This theater is no rhe Ionger just a representation; it is a reality. It absorbs events and feelings, and t to every new event contains within it a memory ofthe past and a potentiai memory gis of the future.
Thus, while the Iocus is a site which can accommodate a series of dis- events, it aiso in itself constitutes an evento In this sense, it is a unique or charac- ises teristic pIace, a “locus solus. Included in this idea of the locus solus, ity. Buildings may be signs of events that have occurred on a ing, specific site; and this threefold relationship of site, event, and sign becomes a mc- characteristic ofurban artifacts.
Hence, the locus may be said to be the pIace on mal which architecture or form can be imprinted. Architecture gives form to the sin- gularity of pIace, and it is in this specific form that the locus persists through many changes, particularly transformations of function.
He says: h is The city of Split which grew up within the walls of Diocletian’s palace gave new mly uses and new meanings to unchangeableforms. This is symbolic of the meaning hip. History exists so long as city an object is in use; that is, so long as a form relates to its originaI function.
How- cha ever, when form and function are severed, and only form remains vitaI, history -ing shifts into the realm ofmemory. When history ends, memory begins. The singu- Iar form of Split now not only signifies its own individuality, but at the same time, it is aiso a sign, a record of events that are part of a collective-that is,. History comes to be known through the relationship between cific a collective memory of events, the singularity ofplace locus solus , and the sign ‘ary of the pIace as expressed in formo t of atly Thus is can be said that the process by which the city is imprinted with form is ” In urban history, but the succession of events constitutes its memory.
The “souI of has the city,” an idea derived by Rossi from the French urban geographers, resides tion in its history; once this souI is given form, it becomes the sign of a pIace.
Memory the becomes the guide to its structure. If time in the chronoiogicai sense beionged to :ure a classicai context, and in the historicist sense to a modernist context, then once associated with memory rather than history, it moves into a psychological con- text. The the individuaI artifact for the first time is understood within the psychological con- jza- struct of collective memory.
Time as collective memory leads Rossi to his par- rby ticular transformation ofthe idea oftype. With the introduction ofmemory into. Type is no longer a neutral structure found in history but rather an ring anaIytical and experimentai structure which now can be used to operate on the ling skeleton of history; it becomes an apparatus, an instrument for analysis and n it- measure.
Its logie, then, exists prior to a form, but also comes to constitute the form in a new way. TI fo Thus it can be said that the apparatus used to measure the object implies and also th is implied in the object itself.
This returns us to the analogue of the skeleton, ca which was seen to be at once instrument and object. This is the other process mediating be bt tween architect and architecture. In the past, innovations in architecture did not ex generally occur through the object; typology was never seen as having the po- en tenti al to be the animating force of a design processo Rossi, however, discovers og in typology the possibility of invention precisely because type is now both pro- lal cess and object.
As a process, it contains a synthetic character which is in itself a ar manifestation of formo Moreover, while the alteration of eertain typological ele- se ments over time is a stimulus to invention, it is also the effect ofmemory on type tir which allows for the new process of design.
Memory fuses with history to give co type-form a significance beyond that of an originaI function. Thus, typology, du which previously consisted only ofthe classifieation ofthe known, now ean serve cls as a catalyst for invention. It beeomes the essence of design for the autonomous researcher. Re re Both the idea ofthe end ofhistory, when a form no longer embodies its originaI te function, and the passing of type from the realm of history into that of memory pr lead Rossi to his internalized, analogous design processo Analogy is Rossi’s most po important apparatus.
It is equally useful to him in writing and in drawing. It is in lai this context that this book can be seen as an analogous artifact itself-a written an analogue to built and drawn artifacts.
The written analogue, like the drawn one, fif is bound up with both pIace and memory. Yet unlike the city, the urban skeleton, mi the analogue is detached from specific pIace and specific time, and becomes in- ler stead an abstract locus existing in what is a purely typological or architectural time-place. The piace of analogy is Rc thereby abstracted from the real city. It is no piace, but a no piace that is different from that ofmodernist utopia precisely AI because it is rooted in both history and memory.
This suppression ofthe precise tol boundaries of time and piace within the analogue produces the same kind of all dialectic that exists in memory between remembering and forgetting. Where the skeleton sozy was seen as the form and measure of specific times and places in the city, the m: analogous design process displaces the specifics of time and piace in the city for th.
The analogous process, when applied to the actual geog- re- raphy ofthe city, therefore acts as a corrosive agent. Iso The subversive analogues proposed in Rossi’s work involve two kinds of trans- formation. One is the dislocation of pIace, the other the dissolution of scale. In Iso the former, the logical geography ofthe skeleton is displaced through typologi- m, cal invention. Rossi uses the example of Canaletto’s painting of three Palladian ip- projects; here, the different places ofthe projects are collapsed into one pIace.
This is illustrated in Rossi’s iot example of Diocletian’s Palace at Split: “Split discovers in its typological form an 0- entire city. From here it follows that the single building can be designed by anal- srs ogy with the city.
In Rossi’s view, the city’s dimensions lfa are unimportant because its meaning and quality reside not in its different le- scales, but in its actual constructions and individuaI artifacts. Yet precisely within this con- text it becomes problematico For with the dissolution of scale in the analogous process there is a seeming return to the very same humanist position first pro- posed in Alberti’s reciprocal metaphor ofthe house and the city: “the city is like a ;10 large house, and the house in turn is like a small city.
For Rossi, the object represents a dialectic between the giant col- lective house ofthe city and its individuai, specific houses, the city’s artifacts. Rossi never resolves this ambiva- -es lence in his work. For despite the latent humanism, there is always an overrid- of ing pessimism which undercuts this potential neo-Enlightenment position. In is Rossi’s own pronouncement, “the time of each man is limited; the future, there- , it fore, must be the present. It mixes “au- se tobiography and civic history,” individual and colIective.
In Rossi’s formulation, of alI great manifestations of sociallife and alI great works of art are boro in uncon- scious life. This leads him directly, if unwittingly, into a second contradiction. The city, a social entity, is in psychological terms a product of a colIective uncon- on scious. At the same time, as an amalgam of formai artifacts, it is a product of he many individuals. That is, it is both a product ofthe collective and a designfor :or the colIective.
In both cases the collective subject is the centrai concept. This re- sa turns us to Rossi’s idea ofthe locus, Whereas the locus solus defines the nature xt, ofthe object, homo civilis now defines the nature ofthe subject. Rossi finally obscures the presence of a psychological context and undermines the Rossi necessity for a psychological model. To propose that the same relationship be- time. There is tobiog nothing left but to resume with a certain obstinacy the reconstruction oj ele- bothf ments and instruments in expectation oj another holiday.
Its history, this di its function, has ended; it has erased the specific memories ofthe houses ofindi- ginnin vidual childhood to become a locus of collective memory. As a giant or collective house of memory, it has a psychological reality which arises from its being a Ultimi pIace of fantasy and illusion, an analogue of both life and death as transitional selfwi states.
For Rossi, writings and drawings are an attempt to explore this giant vatea house ofmemory and all those specific places ofhabitation encountered between cess:t the childhood house of fantasy and hope and the house of illusion and death. It anti scious; The bourgeois house of Rossi’s childhood permitted fantasy, but denied the or- the my dering oftype.
The Architecture ojthe City attempts, through the apparatus of the hu type, to pIace the city before us in sue h a way that, in spite ofhistory, memory search can imagine and reconstruct a future time of fantasy.
This memory is set into mo- ject is tion through the inventive potential of the typological apparatus, the analogous define design processo Rossi’s drawings ofthe “analogous city” can be seen to evolve di- psyche rectly from his writing of The Architecture ojthe City. The analogous drawing vivor, embodies a changed condition ofrepresentation; it exists as the record ofits own history.
Thus, Rossi’s drawings ofthe city, giving form to their own history, be- Peterzyx 1 come part ofthe city, not just a representation ofit. They have an authenticity, a reality which is, precisely, that ofillusion. This reality may then, in turn, be rep- resented in actual buildings. The architectural drawing, formerly thought of exclusively as a form of rep- resentation, now becomes the locus of another reality.
It is not only the site of il- lusion, as it has been traditionally, but also a real pIace ofthe suspended time of both life and death. Unlike the analgous writings, however, the drawings represent the sus- the pension oftwo times: the one processual-where the drawn object is something. No longer in the mb- analogous drawing is time represented by a precisely measured aspect of light, the the length of a shadow, or the aging of a thing.
Rather, time is expressed as an in- finite past which takes things back to the timelessness of childhood, ofillusions, of fragments of possessions and autobiographical images of the author’s own alienated childhood-ofwhich history’s narrative can no longer give an effective account.
Yet for Rossi, this personal aspect of architecture is unsentimentalized. The images of ruin activate this unconscious memory, linking the discarded and the fragmentary with new beginnings. Here again, the appar- ently coherent orderliness of logic is biographical, but fragments are autobiog- raphical.
Abandonment and death-the attributes of the skeleton-are through ory, this dialectic now seen as parts of a process of transformation; death is a new be- ndi- ginning associated with some unknown hope. The shadow of lS of the humanist poet hovers continuously behind the figure of the autonomous re- nory searcher.
The potential transformation ofthe individuaI into the collective sub- mo- ject is left in suspension. Ambiguously, the object of the analogous city begins to gous define the subject once again, not so much as a humanist-hero, nor as the e di- psychological collective, but as a complex, divided, and shattered solitary sur- ving vivor, appearing before, but not withstanding, the collective will ofhistory. I first set forth the idea ofthe analogous city in the introduction to the second ltalian edition and certain clarifications in the introduction to the Portuguese edition, and since then I have preferred not to make any additions to the text.
Like a painting, a building, or a novel, a book becomes a collective ar- tifact; anyone can modify it in his own way, the author notwithstanding. The fig- ure is clear, as in Henry James’s “figure in the carpet,” but everyone sees it in a different way. J ames’s image suggests that clear analysis gives rise to questions that are difficult to subject to further analysis. For this reason, when I first wrote this book, its style and literary construction were of particular concern to me, as they always are, because only the perfect clarity of a rational system al- 2 View of Nantucket, Massachusetts.
For reasons of chronology, I have used great discretion in alter- ing the book, mostly modifying the illustrations and clarifying the language of the present translation. For this country I have decided to write a special introduction. Even though I was influenced by American culture as a young man, especially its literature and film, the influence was more fantastic than scientifico My slight knowledge of the language and lack of direct experience of the country made it alien to me as a field ofwork.
Even more seriously, I could not measure my own ar- chitecture-my ideas and my buildings-on the immeasurable body, static and dynamic, sane and feverish, that is the United States. Although eminently sensible critics have found this to be a paradox, I have discovered the American city and coun- tryside to be the decisive confirmation ofthis book. Perhaps, one might say, this is because America is by now an “old” country full of monuments and traditions, or because in America the city ofparts is a historic and dynamic reality; but more importantly, it is because America seems to be constructed in accordance with the arguments presented in this book.
What does this mean? Once the pioneers arrived in this vast new country, they had to organize their c. They followed one of two models: either cities were laid out along grid hnes, as is the case in most Latin American cities, New York, and othercenters, or they were established as “main street” villages, the image of which has be- come legendary in film westerns.
In both cases, the buildings of the by now bourgeois European city had a particular relevance: church, bank, school, bar, and market. Even the American house maintained with extreme precision two fundamental European typologies: the Spanish corral and patio in Latin America, and the English country house in the United States. American architecture and cities; I prefer to stay with my impressions, albeit 4 Projectfor the ChicagoTribune ones rooted in a sense ofhistory.
New York is a city of Thomas Jefferson, Few Europeans understood this during the years of the Modern Movement in architecture; but certainly Adolf Loos did in his project for the ChicagoTribune competition. That enormous Doric column, which to many Europeans may have seemed only a game, a Viennese divertissement, is the synthesis ofthe distort- ing effects of scale and the application of “style” in an American framework.
This framework ofthe American urban context or landscape makes it as impres- sive to walk through Wall Street on Sunday as it would be to walk into a realiza- tion of one of Serlio’s perspective drawings or of some other Renaissance theoretician. The contributions of, and the intersection with, European experi- ences here have created an “analogous city” of unexpected meaning, as unex- pected as the meaning ofthe “styles” and “orders” that have been applied to it.
This meaning is completely different from what historians of modern archi tec- ture typically see: an America composed of disparate examples of good architec- ture, to be sought out with guides–an America of a necessarily “international style” and of the isolated masterpiece of the great artist in a sea of mediocrity and businessmen’s buildings. The exact opposite is true. RF M57R2M — The summit of Mount Cook towers above the clouds in the distance, while a winding gravel pathway seems to lead through the brush toward the mountain.
RF J4Y5C7 — Goats cluster along a hillside with homes and a tower in Laguna Beach as a means of land maintenance and eating away wild brush that could lead to wil. Pen and brown ink and brush and blue wash,. Portrait Bust of a Man in a White Wig. Black chalk, heightened with white chalk and lead white discolored , with brush and black ink, on blue laid paper. Alessandro Magnasco Italian, Brush and red-brown ink and black chalk, heightened with lead white; sheet: RF D9WF8P — aerial perspective view of a fingerprint revealed by printing dust, with a brush and printing dust recipient.
Elevation view. Staircases lead up to a platform in the center of which stands a sarcophagus upon a pedestal supported by winged skulls. A reclining female statue lies upon the sarcophagus. She holds a stick surrounded by a snake. At the base of the monument, at the corners, stand two female statues. In their gesture, they point toward the sarcophagus.
Double columns support an arch and a square dome decorated, at the center, with a medallion supported by two cupids. RF J4Y5C3 — Goats cluster along a hillside with homes and a tower in Laguna Beach as a means of land maintenance and eating away wild brush that could lead to wil. Pen and brown ink with brush. Bust of a Woman. Pen and brown ink with brush and brown wash, heightened with lead white, over traces of graphite, on ivory laid paper, laid down on ivory laid paper.
Houses by a River. Anonymous, Italian, Venetian, 18th century. Pen and brown ink, brush and gray wash, over traces of charcoal, on cream laid paper. Ruled diagonal lines in graphite or lead running across upper half of sheet. Brush- is equipped with a pump, water, extrication tools and the ability to handle multiple terrains making it more versatile.
RF D9WF90 — shotgun bullet cartounche with a fingerprint revealed by a brush and printing dust next to a small dust container and a brush, a. On verso: red crayon on laid paper. On left, two overdoors. On the top frame sits an entablature with brackets, two cornices of a pediment with suspended festoons.